1. Multiplicative Controller Fusion: Leveraging Algorithmic Priors for Sample-efficient Reinforcement Learning and Safe Sim-To-Real Transfer Krishan Rana, Vibhavari Dasagi, Ben Talbot, Michael Milford, Niko Sünderhauf. In Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2020. Learning long-horizon tasks on real robot hardware can be intractable, and transferring a learned policy from simulation to reality is still extremely challenging. We present a novel approach to model-free reinforcement learning that can leverage existing sub-optimal solutions as an algorithmic prior during training and deployment. During training, our gated fusion approach enables the prior to guide the initial stages of exploration, increasing sample-efficiency and enabling learning from sparse long-horizon reward signals. Importantly, the policy can learn to improve beyond the performance of the sub-optimal prior since the prior’s influence is annealed gradually. During deployment, the policy’s uncertainty provides a reliable strategy for transferring a simulation-trained policy to the real world by falling back to the prior controller in uncertain states. We show the efficacy of our Multiplicative Controller Fusion approach on the task of robot navigation and demonstrate safe transfer from simulation to the real world without any fine tuning. [arXiv] [website]
  1. Residual Reactive Navigation: Combining Classical and Learned Navigation Strategies For Deployment in Unknown Environments Krishan Rana, Ben Talbot, Michael Milford, Niko Sünderhauf. In Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2020. In this work we focus on improving the efficiency and generalisation of learned navigation strategies when transferred from its training environment to previously unseen ones. We present an extension of the residual reinforcement learning framework from the robotic manipulation literature and adapt it to the vast and unstructured environments that mobile robots can operate in. The concept is based on learning a residual control effect to add to a typical sub-optimal classical controller in order to close the performance gap, whilst guiding the exploration process during training for improved data efficiency. We exploit this tight coupling and propose a novel deployment strategy, switching Residual Reactive Navigation (sRNN), which yields efficient trajectories whilst probabilistically switching to a classical controller in cases of high policy uncertainty. Our approach achieves improved performance over end-to-end alternatives and can be incorporated as part of a complete navigation stack for cluttered indoor navigation tasks in the real world. [arXiv] [website]
  1. Where are the Keys? – Learning Object-Centric Navigation Policies on Semantic Maps with Graph Convolutional Networks Niko Sünderhauf. arXiv preprint arXiv:1909.07376, 2019. Emerging object-based SLAM algorithms can build a graph representation of an environment comprising nodes for robot poses and object landmarks. However, while this map will contain static objects such as furniture or appliances, many moveable objects (e.g. the car keys, the glasses, or a magazine), are not suitable as landmarks and will not be part of the map due to their non-static nature. We show that Graph Convolutional Networks can learn navigation policies to find such unmapped objects by learning to exploit the hidden probabilistic model that governs where these objects appear in the environment. The learned policies can generalise to object classes unseen during training by using word vectors that express semantic similarity as representations for object nodes in the graph. Furthermore, we show that the policies generalise to unseen environments with only minimal loss of performance. We demonstrate that pre-training the policy network with a proxy task can significantly speed up learning, improving sample efficiency. [arXiv]
  1. Sim-to-Real Transfer of Robot Learning with Variable Length Inputs Vibhavari Dasagi, Robert Lee, Serena Mou, Jake Bruce, Niko Sünderhauf, Jürgen Leitner. In Australasian Conf. for Robotics and Automation (ACRA), 2019. Current end-to-end deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) approaches require jointly learning perception, decision-making and low-level control from very sparse reward signals and high-dimensional inputs, with little capability of incorporating prior knowledge. In this work, we propose a framework that combines deep sets encoding, which allows for variable-length abstract representations, with modular RL that utilizes these representations, decoupling high-level decision making from low-level control. We successfully demonstrate our approach on the robot manipulation task of object sorting, showing that this method can learn effective policies within mere minutes of highly simplified simulation. The learned policies can be directly deployed on a robot without further training, and generalize to variations of the task unseen during training. [arXiv]
  1. Learning Deployable Navigation Policies at Kilometer Scale from a Single Traversal Jake Bruce, Niko Sünderhauf, Piotr Mirowski, Raia Hadsell, Michael Milford. In Proc. of Conference on Robot Learning (CoRL), 2018. We present an approach for efficiently learning goal-directed navigation policies on a mobile robot, from only a single coverage traversal of recorded data. The navigation agent learns an effective policy over a diverse action space in a large heterogeneous environment consisting of more than 2km of travel, through buildings and outdoor regions that collectively exhibit large variations in visual appearance, self-similarity, and connectivity. We compare pretrained visual encoders that enable precomputation of visual embeddings to achieve a throughput of tens of thousands of transitions per second at training time on a commodity desktop computer, allowing agents to learn from millions of trajectories of experience in a matter of hours. We propose multiple forms of computationally efficient stochastic augmentation to enable the learned policy to generalise beyond these precomputed embeddings, and demonstrate successful deployment of the learned policy on the real robot without fine tuning, despite environmental appearance differences at test time. [arXiv] [website]
  1. One-Shot Reinforcement Learning for Robot Navigation with Interactive Replay Jacob Bruce, Niko Sünderhauf, Piotr Mirowski, Raia Hadsell, Michael Milford. In Proc. of NIPS Workshop on Acting and Interacting in the Real World: Challenges in Robot Learning, 2017. Recently, model-free reinforcement learning algorithms have been shown to solve challenging problems by learning from extensive interaction with the environment. A significant issue with transferring this success to the robotics domain is that interaction with the real world is costly, but training on limited experience is prone to overfitting. We present a method for learning to navigate, to a fixed goal and in a known environment, on a mobile robot. The robot leverages an interactive world model built from a single traversal of the environment, a pre-trained visual feature encoder, and stochastic environmental augmentation, to demonstrate successful zero-shot transfer under real-world environmental variations without fine-tuning.
  1. Vision-and-Language Navigation: Interpreting visually-grounded navigation instructions in real environments Peter Anderson, Qi Wu, Damien Teney, Jake Bruce, Mark Johnson, Niko Sünderhauf, Ian Reid, Stephen Gould, Anton van den Hengel. In Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2018. To enable and encourage the application of vision and language methods to the problem of interpreting visually grounded navigation instructions, we present the Matterport3D Simulator – a large-scale reinforcement learning environment based on real imagery. Using this simulator, which can in future support a range of embodied vision and language tasks, we provide the first benchmark dataset for visually-grounded natural language navigation in real buildings – the Room-to-Room (R2R) dataset.
  1. Multimodal Deep Autoencoders for Control of a Mobile Robot James Sergeant, Niko Sünderhauf, Michael Milford, Ben Upcroft. In Proceedings of the Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation (ACRA), 2015. Robot navigation systems are typically engineered to suit certain platforms, sensing suites and environment types. In order to deploy a robot in an environment where its existing navigation system is insufficient, the system must be modified manually, often at significant cost. In this paper we address this problem, proposing a system based on multimodal deep autoencoders that enables a robot to learn how to navigate by observing a dataset of sensor input and motor commands collected while being teleoperated by a human. Low-level features and cross modal correlations are learned and used in initialising two different architectures with three operating modes. During operation, these systems exploit the learned correlations in generating suitable control signals based only on the sensor information.